Strategic partnerships are declarative policy instruments for India – an attempt to underscore its commitment to building long-term relationships by deepening relationships and promoting congruence on issues of common interest. In addition, a strategic partnership must include exchanges and cooperation at different levels and between different sectors and locations. A strategic partnership targets the fundamental and long-term national interests of the parties concerned. It is not immutable, but flexible. It grows and varies, depending on each partner, time, industry and type of application across each topic. The strategic objective of the third stage is China`s three-stage development strategy. The original three-stage plan was adopted on the 13th floor. The Party Congress officially announced in 1987 that China would double its GDP at Stage 1 from 1981 to 1990; in stage 2, GNP would double again by the end of 2000; and in stage 3, China`s per capita GNP would reach the level of an intermediate-level industrialized country by the middle of the twenty-first century. China achieved the first two goals in 1995.
Thus, in 1997, at the 15th Party Congress, China updated its third-stage goals, according to which China would double its GDP on a year 2000 basis by the end of 2010, and by 2049, when the PRC celebrates its centenary, China will have largely realized the modernization program. In addition, based on adjustments made at the 16th and 17th Party Congresses, China revised its development goals at the 18th and 17th Congresses. The Party Congress in 2012 further clarified: China would double its GDP and per capita income for 2010 for urban and rural residents, complete the construction of a moderately prosperous society by 2020, and make China a modern country by 2049. Strategic partnerships are often associated with issues related to defence or security, but also cover a wide range of bilateral relations, from defence to education, from health to development and also economic relations, including trade, investment and banking. Yang, J. (2003), “Key strategic opportunity and the historical mission of China`s diplomacy,” Study of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping Theories, vol. 4, pp. 60-67. Thirdly, in the past, subjects often attached importance to political, security and defence cooperation when building and deploying their strategic partnerships. But now the tendency to choose one or more narrow sectors or diversify connotations to build a strategic partnership has become more common, as long as it benefits both sides and does not lead to a military alliance. A joint strategic partnership involves a company that provides engineering, manufacturing or product development services and works with a small entrepreneurial company or inventor to develop a new specialized product.
Typically, the large company provides the necessary capital and capabilities for product development, marketing, manufacturing, and sales, while the small business provides specialized technical or creative expertise. With the Premier Wen classification, we can therefore divide the countries and regions of the partnership into three major groups: the global strategic partnership, the strategic partnership and the regular partnership. The result is presented in Table III. To further illustrate the differences between these three main types of partnerships in practice, we selected six countries and examined the official announcements that accompanied the signing of the agreement. These six countries are Russia, Pakistan, Ireland, Qatar, Belgium and Romania, two for each category. From the documents, we have selected the main areas of cooperation and the results are presented in Table IV. The term “strategic” means that cooperation between the two countries not only has a general meaning for bilateral relations, but is also stable and long-term, overcoming differences in ideology and political systems. Finally, the term “partnership” means that the two countries work together on the basis of mutual respect, trust and equality. Both parties strive to develop a mutually beneficial win-win relationship. In international relations, states use different concepts to emphasize the “special” role of kinship with certain countries. One of these concepts is “strategic partnership”.
Although we have recently witnessed the “devaluation” of this concept due to its frequent use, a true strategic partnership between the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as between the United States and Israel, can be observed. In other cases, strategic partnerships are based on short-term situational and cyclical interests rather than on fundamental long-term “strategic” priorities. In this analysis, we will try to understand the reasons for the strategic partnership between two countries. First, there is a framework of relations between them with broad connotations of cooperation, depending on the political will and desire for cooperation of the parties concerned, formalized by high-level declarations or communiqués. Practical experience in building strategic partnerships in recent years shows that strategic partnerships should not be built at all costs and that caution is advised and that the following issues should be addressed appropriately: The Cambridge Dictionary defines the term strategic partnership as “an agreement between two companies or organisations to help or collaborate with each other, so that it is easier for each of them to achieve the things they want to achieve.  In this definition, the key word is “the things they want to achieve.” In the terminology of international relations, the word translates to “national interests”. As the experts explained, “Countries trying to build a strategic partnership share common and strategically important goals or even vital interests. In this regard, there should be cooperation between the parties with a long-term plan and a road map. One of the important objectives is to maintain the security, prosperity and status of everyone on the international stage, of which the maintenance of each other`s security and prosperity is at the heart of the other.  In the post-Cold War international order, where the United States enjoys a priority that no other country can achieve, building an alliance independent of the American network would make China an automatic objective of the United States. As China chooses to evolve through integration into the global production chain, building a vast network of partnerships seems to be the only way for China to improve its relations with other countries.
As long as a direct conflict between China and the United States can be avoided, China can focus on its domestic development goals. This approach is reflected in a statement by Chinese President Xi Jinping expressing his willingness to build partnerships with all kinds of countries. “Those who share the same vision and follow the same path are partners. Those who seek common ground while reporting differences can also be partners (志同道合是伙伴, 求同存异也是伙伴)” (Wang, 2015). China has the largest number of strategic partnerships in the world with more than 50 partners, including small countries such as Laos, Cambodia, Kazakhstan and Afghanistan, three international organizations (EU, ASEAN and African Union). It is followed by Russia with more than 30 strategic and equivalent partners; the United States with 24 strategic partners and equal partners, including nine strategic partners, three global partners, two special relationships with the United Kingdom and Israel, two non-NATO allies, and eight other allies; The France with 13 strategic partners; the United Kingdom and India, each with 12 allies and strategic partnerships; the EU and Mexico, each with 10 strategic partners; Germany and Indonesia, each with nine strategic partners; Poland with six strategic partners.  The method is a way for India to set foot in the door for the further development of diplomatic engagement in military and defence matters. The spread of such partnerships is starting to make more sense. The traditional theory of alliance does not fully explain why China is trying to build up to 24 different types of partnerships with different countries and regional groups. .