In the following, I have described how our legislative process works. As an example, I chose a bill that I introduced, the Diesel Emission Reduction Act of 2005, and I show how this bill has gone from a simple idea to a new law. After the House of Representatives and the Senate have approved a bill in an identical form, the bill is sent to the President. If the president approves the law, it will be signed and become law. If the president does nothing for ten days while Congress is in session, the bill automatically becomes law. If the chair objects to the bill, he or she can veto the bill. If no action is taken for 10 days and Congress has already adjourned, there is a “pocket veto.” Once the bill is passed by both houses, it is sent to the president for approval or signature, which, if granted, creates a public law. When a president comments on a law and refuses to sign it, it is called a veto. A veto bill could be sent back to Congress for reconsideration.
If the Chair does not act within 10 days, the bill will automatically come into force. If Congress adjourns within 10 days of the bill being submitted to the President and he does not sign it, the veto of the bill is automatically invoked. This process is also known as the pocket veto. As soon as a bill is introduced, it is referred to committee. The House of Representatives and the Senate have various committees composed of groups of members of Congress who are particularly interested in various topics such as health or international affairs. When a bill is in the hands of the committee, it is carefully considered and its chances of being passed by the entire Congress are determined. The committee could even hold hearings to better understand the implications of the bill. Hearings record the views of the executive, experts, other officials and supporters, as well as opponents of the legislation. If the committee does not act on a bill, it is considered “dead.” Congress can try to overturn an executive order by passing a law that blocks it. But the president can veto this law. Congress would then have to override this veto to pass the bill.
In addition, the Supreme Court may declare a decree unconstitutional. Once the conference committee has resolved any discrepancies between the House and Senate versions of the bill, each chamber must vote again to approve the final bill. Once each chamber has approved the bill, the bill is sent to the President. The president then makes the decision whether or not to sign the law. When the president signs the law, it becomes a law. If the president refuses to sign it, the law does not become law. If the president refuses to sign the law, the result is called a veto. Congress can try to override a veto.
To do this, the Senate and House of Representatives must vote by a two-thirds majority to override the president`s veto. When this happens, the president`s veto is lifted and the bill becomes law. When the bill goes through one body of Congress, it goes to the other body to go through a similar process of research, discussion, change and voting. Often, the Senate bill and the House bill have slight differences Often, the Senate bill and the House bill have minor differences in their respective bills, which must be drafted before each chamber can approve the final bill and then send it to the Speaker for signature. When that happens, a special committee of the conference made up of members of the Senate and house of representatives will work together to reach consensus on the various provisions of the bill. The member of the Senate assigned deRA to the Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, of which I am a member. Because it was a well-drafted bipartisan bill, our colleagues on the committee did not see the need for changes to our bill. The bill was positively approved by the committee in an increase on June 20, 2005 and included in the Senate`s schedule for consideration. At this point, Senator Voinovich and I have made the decision to include our bill as an amendment to a broader energy bill that was introduced in the House of Representatives, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6). We have done this to ensure that our legislation has the best chance of being passed by Congress as quickly as possible.
I worked with Senator George V. Voinovich, a Republican from Ohio, to find a solution to the pollution caused by diesel trucks and other large vehicles. After weeks of cooperation, we introduced the Diesel Emission Reduction Act, 2005 (DERA). This bill authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a program to promote diesel clean-up efforts. .